From “grass-based” to “grass-wood dispute”, the hot topic of the paper industry in China in recent years has been the integration of forestry and paper, and it has been improved to “accelerate forestry-paper integration is a strategic choice for paper modernization”. A consensus has gone through the "China Forest and Paper Integration Investment and Development Forum" that opened today for nearly half a century. Whether it is the country's attention and support, the enthusiastic participation and scale of the participants, and the breadth and depth of the issues discussed, Before the embankment. I hope this forum can serve as a milestone: On the one hand, insightful people in the forestry and paper industry can truly understand how to take the road to forestry and paper integration. On the other hand, the most critical issue is the government, how to further deepen market orientation. Reformed and revised the supporting laws, regulations and industrial policies, mobilized the enthusiasm of diversified investment entities, and fundamentally promoted the integration of forestry and paper. I talked about my point of view roughly along this line of thought. It is inevitable that something is wrong or even wrong. Please criticize and correct me.
1 Marketization of forestry paper is the basic premise of forestry-paper integration
In the past, talking about "forest-paper integration" was actually a combination of departments in administrative relations. It was only talking about differences. Now we talk about the integration of forestry and paper. Most people think that it is the industrialized management of forestry paper, that is, the integration of operations, and even vividly stated that the artificial forest farm is the first workshop of the paper mill. Deeper integration is the integration of capital through a combination of diversified property owners with clear property rights.
The capital integration of forestry and paper industries and other forms of business integration are market trading behaviors under the rule of law. Under the current system, the transaction cost of realizing forestry-paper integration is very high or even untradable. The fundamental reason is institutional obstacles. The government has too many controls over the industry's inconsistent with market economic laws, that is, the degree of marketization is low. Industrial marketization refers to the process of continuous increase in the degree of industrial marketization (ie, the ratio of market allocation resources). In terms of forestry, the paper industry entered the market earlier. In the 1980s when the entire national economy was “based on planned economy and supplemented by market adjustment”, the paper’s commodity trading was dominated by market adjustment. In recent years, due to the large number of foreign investment and the rapid development of the private paper industry, the degree of marketization in the capital structure has greatly improved. However, due to the special status and historical origins of forestry (which is a big agriculture, it is the primary industry), it is still "based on a planned economy," and its degree of marketization is very low. Obviously, 'a forest with a low degree of marketization and a paper industry with a relatively high degree of marketization (not at all!) are extremely difficult or even impossible to achieve integration in a market economy. Therefore, the government must make up its mind to gradually remove institutional barriers, “relax” forestry (industrial forests only) and paper industry, create a loose, free, and orderly economic environment, and promote forestry and paper in the process of accelerating industrial marketization. Change.
2 China's forestry and paper industries have huge market opportunities
In the process of accelerating the industrialization of the industry, if the industry has a huge market opportunity, it can absorb more investors, especially to attract the entry of private capital. In turn, it has to speed up the marketization and form a virtuous circle.
The market opportunity for the paper industry is huge. This is well-known. I don't have to say more. For industrial plantation forests different from ecological forests, there are huge market opportunities, and can guarantee a relatively large return on investment. The forestry industry may be aware of the number of people, but may be somewhat upset for people outside the industry. However, to me, an outsider, I think there is a huge market opportunity and a more lucrative return on investment. I basically agree with some of the views of the Beijing Tianze Institute on promoting the commercialization of Chinese forestry.
Of the 9.6 million square kilometers of China's territory, 70% are mountainous areas, and the area of ​​suitable forests is approximately 267 million hectares, accounting for 27.8% of the total land area. In sharp contrast, although the forest coverage rate has been slowly increasing, it has just exceeded 16%, much lower than the world average of 27%, and the forest area utilization rate is only 45.7%, and some developed countries More than 90%. China's per capita forest reserves are only 9 cubic meters, equivalent to 12.5% ​​of the world's per capita volume.
The depletion of forest resources has led to extremely serious economic and environmental consequences: In 2001, about 12 billion U.S. dollars were spent on imported wood pulp, waste paper, paper and paperboard, paper products, wood-based panels, and logs, which together with oil and steel became The country’s largest import of imports of the three major categories of products, import dependence. What is more serious is that in the past there was no foreign exchange for the import of wood pulp and other commodities, which forced the “grass-based” error to be adopted, which led to a serious distortion of the paper industry in China, resulting in structural distortions and a typical industry that was not sustainable. As for the environmental consequences, it is obvious that the ecological deterioration will threaten the survival and development of future generations, and the cost will be heavy.
Although the scarcity of forest resources has caused huge losses, it also indicates a huge market opportunity for forestry. The shortage of wood will inevitably lead to a rise in domestic prices, and the impact of the international timber market may lead to fluctuations in the price of domestic timber, but in general, it will not drastically decline because the awareness of environmental protection is increasing in all countries, especially in developed countries. This trend will eventually reduce the supply of wood. Specifically, the cost of afforestation, although the production of industrial plantations from the natural state to intensive, high-tech, factory-oriented transformation, but essentially a labor-intensive industry, China's forestry has a clear competitive advantage.
Obviously, with the above market opportunities, as long as a good market environment is established, foreign and private investment will be attracted. In recent years, APP has established a number of fast-growing forest bases in Hainan and Guangdong, Shaoguan, Qingyuan, Qinzhou, Guangxi, Zhenjiang, Yancheng, and Anhui. During the six-year plan in Hainan, it invested 1.456 billion yuan and planted 233,000 hectares of forest land. By the end of 2001, 47,000 hectares had been planted. These forests were growing well and the volume of timber increased rapidly, and they gradually showed local With a good adjustment of the ecological environment, forestry has become a new hot spot for investment in Guangdong. Since 1991, the province's private investment in afforestation has totaled 533,000 hectares, invested 2.3 billion yuan, and afforestation households have reached 540,000 households. The cumulative revenue of forest products is about 7.66 billion yuan, and the development of private forestry is at the forefront of the country (Gu Minda 2002). (To be continued)

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