In recent years, there has been a widening gap between raw pulp production and paper and board production. The difference is mainly due to waste paper. Waste paper will account for 50% to 60% of paper fiber raw materials. The highest waste paper recycling rates were in Hong Kong, Germany, South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan, where the waste paper recycling rates in Hong Kong and Germany were as high as 88.2% and 71%, respectively. The highest utilization rate of waste paper is in Mexico, Taiwan, and South Korea, and papermaking in Mexico is absolutely dependent on waste paper materials. It has been estimated that recycling 1 ton of office waste paper can produce 0.8 tons of recycled paper and save 4 cubic meters of wood accordingly. If we recycle half of the paper used in the world today, we will be able to meet 75% of the new paper demand, which is equivalent to 8 million hectares of forest from being cut down.
The United States and the United States are the world’s largest producers of pulp and paperboard and are also major consumers. The United States strongly promotes the recycling of waste paper and encourages enterprises to use waste paper to produce cardboard and packaging materials. For example, the US stone container company uses waste paper to produce cordeck corrugated flat plates for packaging and transportation of goods; R-Tech company produces E-cubes packaging materials made from recycled waste paper, and can be packed into fragile after adding fillers. Compared with foam plastics, articles are more convenient and quicker to fill, can be filled with any shape of goods, recycled, biodegradable and non-toxic.
In 2000, the output of paper products in the United States was 85.495 million tons, and the consumption amounted to 92.355 million tons, accounting for 28.6% of the world's consumption. The waste paper recovery amount was 44.938 million tons, the recovery rate was 48.7%, 35.908 million tons was recycled, and the net export volume was 9.03 million tons, accounting for 20% of the total recycling volume. The waste paper in the United States is mainly exported to neighboring countries Canada, Mexico and East Asia, South Korea and China. In the United States, OCC accounts for almost half of the waste paper, followed by ONP. The recovery rates of OCC and ONP have reached 70.1% and 68.9% (1999), and there is little possibility of further increase. On the contrary, a type of waste paper called RMP is not yet fully utilized. The recovery rate is only about 20%, and it needs further recycling. For future development, the United States has proposed that the utilization rate of waste paper should reach 50% of paper production. Among them, newsprint reaches 60% to 70%; printing paper reaches 40% to 50%; toilet paper must use waste paper as raw material.
In December 2003, a report released by the Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture predicted that the supply of recovered paper in the United States is expected to increase year by year from 2010 to 2050. The forecasting figures are as follows: In 2010, the supply was 156.2 million tons, of which the supply of paper pulp was 105.6 million tons, and the supply of recycled paper was 0.506 billion tons. In 2020, it was 178 million tons, including 120.9 million tons of wood pulp and 557.1 million tons of paper. In 2030 it was 198.2 million tons, of which wood pulp was 134.9 million tons and recycled paper was 633.3 million tons.
Although Germany and Germany lack fiber resources, they are required to import large quantities of commercial pulp and paper every year. However, due to the large amount of consumption, the recovery rate of waste paper is high, and a large amount of waste paper is exported every year. Germany is the world’s second largest exporter of waste paper. In 2000, the output of waste paper and paperboard was 18.182 million tons, and the consumption was 191.22 million tons. The recovered paper was 13.57 million tons, and the recycling rate was 71%; the net export of waste paper was 2.578 million tons in the same year. It accounts for 19% of the total recovery, which is very close to the United States.
The German Bidirectional System Recovery Organization (DSD), under the jurisdiction of the EU competition regulations, will be forced to open the bidding rules for packaging waste recycling contracts to EU countries. DSD is composed of 414 packaging paper collectors, sorters and recyclers in Germany. It collects 1.5 million tons of waste paper annually, including corrugated boxes. The organization subsidizes waste paper collectors 50 million euros (53 million US dollars) a year, and the expenses are paid by the German national green point marking system in annual revenue. (To be continued)

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