An automatic weather station is a weather station that is controlled by electronic equipment or by a computer to automatically perform meteorological observations and data collection and transmission.

The sensing part of the meteorological instrument of the wired telemetry weather station is separated from the reading or recording instrument by several tens of meters to several kilometers, and the weather station is transmitted by the wired communication circuit for observation. Its telemetry system includes non-electrical-to-electricity converters for inductive components, wired communication circuits, and display instruments and self-metering instruments. This kind of telemetry system is mostly used to query departments with frequent meteorological data in real time, such as airports. Due to the development of telecommunication transmission and electronic computers, the observatories of the general weather station network have also begun to transition to telemetry to perform telemetry of single or multiple elements. Some countries have begun to establish telemetry networks, and some central station computers control dozens of stations to achieve automation of observation and data collection; some have begun to build large-scale telemetry networks, even national telemetry networks.

The wireless telemetry weather station is also known as the unmanned weather station. It is a small weather station that is automatically controlled by electronic circuits, regularly observed and reported. It includes measurement system, program control and code transmission system, and power supply.

PH automatic weather station

There are many ways to convert meteorological elements into electrical signals. Commonly available are mechanical coding and low frequency modulation. The former mostly uses the mechanical displacement sensing element to make the pointer shift on the code wheel to emit different codes; the latter mostly uses the sensing element with the electrical property change to generate a low frequency change signal, and then the signal is carried on the radio frequency. emission.

Unmanned weather stations can generally work continuously for about one year, and regularly observe 4 to 24 times a day. They can receive meteorological telegraphs sent by them on time and hundreds of kilometers to dry kilometers, as well as the use of satellites to collect and forward data. Human weather station. Unmanned weather stations are commonly used in sparsely populated areas such as deserts, mountains and oceans. On the ocean, both floating and fixed are included.

Various weather phenomena in the atmosphere are changing all the time. Meteorologists are constantly monitoring and measuring various meteorological data regardless of day and night, storms and thunder. In the snow-covered plateaus where there are few people, in the deserted deserts, some automatic weather stations are often established on islands far from the mainland. Currently, automatic weather stations come in three forms.

(1) Unmanned automatic weather station. The unmanned automatic weather station is a small weather station that is automatically controlled by electronic circuits and automatically timed to observe and report. Generally, it can work continuously for about one year, and it can be observed regularly for 1-24 times a day. It can receive its signal on time and 100 kilometers away. It can also collect and forward the data it sends. Generally used in deserts, mountains and oceans. The marine automatic weather station has two types of buoy type and fixed type. In the key sea areas, the buoys are arranged in an order like the soldiers and horses, telling people about the sea conditions at any time. Fixed unmanned automatic weather stations are built on islands.

(2) Wired telemetry automatic weather station. The wired telemetry automatic weather station is composed of a sensor, an interface circuit, a microcomputer system and a communication interface. The microcomputer system is the heart of the wired telemetry automatic weather station. It is responsible for processing the interface circuit and the signals input by the observer, displaying, printing, storing the results to the disk and sending them to the user. past. Such automatic weather stations are built in places such as airports, forests and environmental protection departments that require frequent access to meteorological data. At present, observations of general weather stations in China have begun to transition to telemetry, and telemetry of individual meteorological elements or multiple elements has been implemented. Some countries have begun to establish telemetry networks.

(3) Long-term automatic weather station. A long-term automatic weather station is a weather station that is only used to collect data. Its information is not sent and is regularly retrieved by the staff.

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